At present, there are prefectural-level cities in China. Till , there exist 13 cities with population over 4 million, 28 cities with 2 to 4 million people, 81 cities with to million people. However, cities have shown its weakness in the process of rapid urbanization. For instance, total income of average citizen ranks in , coal and steel consumption is No.
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Moreover, dominant role of Second industry, especially high-consumed industry leads to the increase of resource consumption which finally results in serious environmental problem. In addition, there are also the severe pollution of urban air pollution, deterioration of water quality, traffic noise and urban solid trash increasing . The facts prove that present economy growth pattern of China city still greatly depends on manufacture centered with resource consumption. In order to realize the upgrading of urban industrial structure, energy saving and emission reduction, it is necessary to increase the proportion of the 3rd industry-based service economy in urban economy, and to set the target of constructing low-carbon city in city planning.
Now everybody admits that it is a brilliant economy success. At present, Shenzhen is at the crucial stage of transformation of economic structure and growth model. It must be confronting with the challenges and opportunities as well. The result from Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics indicates that the population of residents has increased from thousand to 8. With the development of 2nd industry, high-costly energy industry grows as well, total energy consumption rises regularly every year.
In , raw coal consumption was 2.
China’s Urban Energy Challenge
It is obvious that there is a regular increase in resource consumption and CO2 emission which results in severe environmental problem during the process of fast urbanization of Shenzhen City. As a key city in Zhujiang Delta, Shenzhen should set a good example in this work.
Therefore, in a government report of , it proposed to speed up the construction of national eco-cultural demonstrative city and national low-carbon eco-demonstrative city in five years. It also planed to promote energy-saving and emission-reduction in public organization, and to advocate low-carbon life-style to enhance eco-cultural awareness. In this way, it is able to construct a low-carbon city free of constraints from resource and protection which matters much for Shenzhen. Xue Meng think the establishment of low-carbon city evaluation index should focus on three aspects, that is, production channel, coordination degree between carbon-emission reduction quantity and economy development, government policy enforcement ; Xu Hong has designed a city sustainable development evaluation index system which is made up of 3 levels, 4 systems and 23 specific indexes .
Shao Chaofeng has adopted the model of drive-stress-state-influence-response and constructed the system of 5 categories and 13 elements . Table 1.
Top 5 takeaways for cities and regions from the UN Climate Action Summit
Shenzhen evaluation indicator system of low-carbon city. According to the above evaluation indicator system and statistics of in Shenzhen, Table 2 comes into being as follows. There comes a relevant matrix as Table 3 with correlation analysis:. Therefore, we can have main elements analysis on these repetitive indexes to figure out various principal component factors representing comprehensive situation of economic development level. As indicated in Table 4 , the value of KMO is 0. Table 5 shows that the contribution rate of the first.
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The situation of economic development in Shenzhen. Table 3. Correlation coefficient matrix. Table 4. The initial factor loading will work out relative character value to achieve principal component function expression as the economic development index so as to gain graph of economic development of Shenzhen in the year of In Table 6 , the column vector of main principal component divided by , which will get standardized principal component of economic development index. Especially since , there has witnessed a rapid increase. The following statistics see Table 7 studies low-carbon development level in Shenzhen during Table 5.
The matrix of total variance explaination. Table 6. The matrix of initial factor loading. Figure 1. Shenzhen economic development indicator value. In terms of positive and negative contribution from various indexes in evaluation system, we can calculate negative index with its reciprocal to indicate negative influential characteristics of this index. Detailed Analysis process of low-carbon development level is deleted for its similarity with evaluation method of economic development.
There only lists standardized low carbon development index principal component expression:.
People can predict a gradual growth of the third industry, reduction of emission of CO 2 , improvement of urban air quality, and expansion of city green coverage. All of these tell the truth that the government of Shenzhen is striving for solving the contradiction between production and environmental protection. Table 7. Low-carbon development in Shenzhen.
Figure 2. Shenzhen low-carbon development indicator value. Detailed Analysis process of social development level is again deleted for its similarity with calculation expression of synthetically index. And there only lists standardized low carbon development index principal component expression:. During , there was a steady but slight declining trend in development. While the year of suffered a sharp drop resulting from high birth rate, which affected average distribution of social resource.
Comparing with the gradual increase of economic and low-carbon development indicators, the trend of social development indicator proves that citizens in Shenzhen have to work hard to keeping the balance among economic, low-carbon and social development. Table 8. Social development in Shenzhen. The book also explores cities' role in climate adaptation and opportunities presented by carbon finance and other global mechanisms to finance low-carbon city development. The World Bank project data and experience combined with the national and international experience presented in this edited book deliver both a broad picture and actionable steps for China's urban development.
The chapters argue that China's cities not only need to, but also have an opportunity and the ability to integrate sustainable low-carbon development in their urban development. Low-carbon efforts align closely with the sustainable urbanization agenda and the book points to multiple benefits, such as improved air quality and urban livability, that can be derived from implementing this urgent agenda. The intended audience of this edited book is government officials of municipalities, cities, and townships in China who will be defining policies and programs to achieve the targets of economic growth and carbon emission reductions emerging from the 12th Five-Year Plan.
The lessons presented may also be of interest to other countries and development partners supporting low-carbon urban programs. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it.
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